What's this?

commandlinefu.com is the place to record those command-line gems that you return to again and again.

Delete that bloated snippets file you've been using and share your personal repository with the world. That way others can gain from your CLI wisdom and you from theirs too. All commands can be commented on, discussed and voted up or down.

If you have a new feature suggestion or find a bug, please get in touch via http://commandlinefu.uservoice.com/

Get involved!

You can sign-in using OpenID credentials, or register a traditional username and password.

First-time OpenID users will be automatically assigned a username which can be changed after signing in.

Universal configuration monitoring and system of record for IT.

Stay in the loop…

Follow the Tweets.

Every new command is wrapped in a tweet and posted to Twitter. Following the stream is a great way of staying abreast of the latest commands. For the more discerning, there are Twitter accounts for commands that get a minimum of 3 and 10 votes - that way only the great commands get tweeted.

» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu
» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu3
» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu10

Subscribe to the feeds.

Use your favourite RSS aggregator to stay in touch with the latest commands. There are feeds mirroring the 3 Twitter streams as well as for virtually every other subset (users, tags, functions,…):

Subscribe to the feed for:



May 19, 2015 - A Look At The New Commandlinefu
I've put together a short writeup on what kind of newness you can expect from the next iteration of clfu. Check it out here.
March 2, 2015 - New Management
I'm Jon, I'll be maintaining and improving clfu. Thanks to David for building such a great resource!

Top Tags



All commands from sorted by
Terminal - All commands - 12,333 results
grep -i '^DocumentRoot' /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf | cut -f2 -d'"'
echo $numbers | sed "s/\( \|$\)/\n/g" | sort -nu | tr "\n" " " | sed -e "s/^ *//" -e "s/ $//"
2009-06-24 15:12:17
User: chickenzilla
Functions: echo sed sort tr

You can replace "sort -nu" with "sort -u" for a word list sorted or "sort -R" for a random-sorted line

(edit: corrected)

a=(*); echo ${a[$((RANDOM % ${#a[@]}))]}
clgrep keyword
find . -print | sed -e 's;[^/]*/;|____;g;s;____|; |;g'
2009-03-12 22:25:26
Functions: find sed

NOT MINE! Taken from hackzine.com blog.

It creates a tree-style output of all the (sub)folders and (sub)files from the current folder and down(deeper)

Quoting some of hackzine's words

"Murphy Mac sent us a link to a handy find/sed command that simulates the DOS tree command that you might be missing on your Mac or Linux box. [..split...] Like most things I've seen sed do, it does quite a bit in a single line of code and is completely impossible to read. Sure it's just a couple of substitutions, but like a jack in the box, it remains a surprise every time I run it."

httpd -S
ps -o euid,egid --ppid `netstat --inet --inet6 -pln|awk '/:80 / { split($7,tmp, "/"); print tmp[1]; }'`|sort |uniq|grep -v EUID
2010-11-18 21:22:29
User: chx
Functions: awk grep ps sort

This command allows you to find the effective uid and gid of the Apache process regardless of process name (which can be apache2 or httpd depending on distro).

vimdiff file1 file2
find . \( -iname "*.doc" -o -iname "*.docx" \) -type f -exec ls -l --full-time {} +|sort -k 6,7
yum --nogpgcheck install "examplePackage"
2009-08-30 18:18:30
User: iDen
Functions: install

Same as:

1 rpm -ivh package.rpm

2 yum localinstall package.rpm

3 Edit /etc/yum.conf or repository.repo and change the value of gpgcheck from 1 to 0 (!dangerous)

dbus-send --print-reply --dest=im.pidgin.purple.PurpleService /im/pidgin/purple/PurpleObject im.pidgin.purple.PurpleInterface.PurpleSavedstatusGetCurrent
2010-01-11 17:30:07
User: unixApe

Returns code of current status of pidgin accounts via dbus interface

sudo update-rc.d -f nomemioscript start 99 2 3 4 5
sftp -p port [email protected]
sudo update-rc.d -f nomescript stop 90 0 6
scutil --dns
for file in $( vmrun list | grep 'vmx$' | sort ); do printf "% 40s %s M\n" $(echo "$( echo -n ${file}:\ ; grep memsize $file )" | sed -e 's/.*\///' -e 's/"//g' -e 's/memsize.=//'); done;
2010-11-19 06:14:11
Functions: echo file grep printf sed sort
Tags: vmware

So your boss wants to know how much memory has been assigned to each virtual machine running on your server... here's how to nab that information from the command line while logged in to that server

VBoxManage modifyvm "vm-name" --vrdp on --vrdpport 3389 --vrdpauthtype external
2012-02-03 18:36:04
User: 0disse0

--vrdp on enables VirtualBox RDP server for the VM

--vrdpport 3389 ndicates the TCP port that the server will accept RDP connections direct to the VM (for each VM is assigned a different port)

--vrdpauthtype external RDP console gives access to the VM Host physical users via authentication

In fact, in the 3.1.x version of VirtualBox, the external value for the parameter --vrdpauthtype allows access via RDP only to the user who started the VM.

The workaround is to add the user that runs the VM to shadow group, using the command

cat infile | while read str; do echo "$((++i)) - $str" ; done;
2009-12-09 14:05:09
User: glaudiston
Functions: cat echo read

Yep, is hard, but is a way more flexible using pipe.

ip -4 addr show eth0 | awk ' /inet/ {print $2}'
2011-10-05 11:38:55
User: kadu
Functions: awk

Shows the first IP on named interface including the network size

find /path/to/dir -type f -exec cachedel '{}' \;
2013-12-12 18:22:54
User: michelsberg
Functions: find

This is just another example of what the nocache package is useful for, which I described in http://www.commandlinefu.com/commands/view/12357/ and that provides the commands

nocache <command to run with page cache disabled>

cachedel <single file to remove from page cache>

cachstats <single file> # to get the current cache state

Often, we do not want to disable caching, because several file reads are involved in a command and operations would be slowed down a lot, due to massive disk seeks. But after our operations, the file sits in the cache needlessly, if we know we're very likely never touching it again.

cachedel helps to reduce cache pollution, i.e. frequently required files relevant for desktop interaction (libs/configs/etc.) would be removed from RAM.

So we can run cachedel after each data intensive job. Today I run commands like these:

<compile job> && find . -type f -exec cachedel '{}' \; &> /dev/null # no need to keep all source code and tmp files in memory

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade && find /var/cache/apt/archives/ -type f -exec cachedel '{}' \; # Debian/*buntu system upgrade

dropbox status | grep -Fi idle && find ~/Dropbox -type f -exec cachedel '{}' \; &> /dev/null # if Dropbox is idle, remove sync'ed files from cache





find . -maxdepth 1 -iname '*jpg' -exec convert -quality 60 {} lowQ/{} \;
2009-02-15 19:34:38
User: abhinay
Functions: find

* lowQ/ is the output directory

* pass quality level from 1 to 100

echo "import random; print(random.choice(['heads', 'tails']))" | python
convert -bordercolor Transparent -border 1x1 in.png out.png
2009-02-15 19:42:17
User: jimmac

Requires either imagemagick or graphicsmagic utility.

/usr/local/bin/OFPW -pass thepassword