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Commands by AskApache from sorted by
Terminal - Commands by AskApache - 47 results
G=$(stty -g);stty rows $((${LINES:-50}/2));top -n1; stty $G;unset G
3

One of my favorite ways to impress newbies (and old hats) to the power of the shell, is to give them an incredibly colorful and amazing version of the top command that runs once upon login, just like running fortune on login. It's pretty sweet believe me, just add this one-liner to your ~/.bash_profile -- and of course you can set the height to be anything, from 1 line to 1000!

G=$(stty -g);stty rows $((${LINES:-50}/2));top -n1; stty $G;unset G

Doesn't take more than the below toprc file I've added below, and you get all 4 top windows showing output at the same time.. each with a different color scheme, and each showing different info. Each window would normally take up 1/4th of your screen when run like that - TOP is designed as a full screen program. But here's where you might learn something new today on this great site.. By using the stty command to change the terminals internal understanding of the size of your terminal window, you force top to also think that way as well.

# save the correct settings to G var.

G=$(stty -g)

# change the number of rows to half the actual amount, or 50 otherwise

stty rows $((${LINES:-50}/2))

# run top non-interactively for 1 second, the output stays on the screen (half at least)

top -n1

# reset the terminal back to the correct values, and clean up after yourself

stty $G;unset G

This trick from my [ http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html bash_profile ], though the online version will be updated soon. Just think what else you could run like this!

Note 1: I had to edit the toprc file out due to this site can't handle that (uploads/including code). So you can grab it from [ http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash-power-prompt.html my site ]

Note 2: I had to come back and edit again because the links weren't being correctly parsed

alias dateh='date --help|sed -n "/^ *%%/,/^ *%Z/p"|while read l;do F=${l/% */}; date +%$F:"|'"'"'${F//%n/ }'"'"'|${l#* }";done|sed "s/\ *|\ */|/g" |column -s "|" -t'
21

If you have used bash for any scripting, you've used the date command alot. It's perfect for using as a way to create filename's dynamically within aliases,functions, and commands like below.. This is actually an update to my first alias, since a few commenters (below) had good observations on what was wrong with my first command.

# creating a date-based ssh-key for askapache.github.com

ssh-keygen -f ~/.ssh/`date +git-$USER@$HOSTNAME-%m-%d-%g` -C 'webmaster@askapache.com' # /home/gpl/.ssh/git-gplnet@askapache.github.com-04-22-10

# create a tar+gzip backup of the current directory

tar -czf $(date +$HOME/.backups/%m-%d-%g-%R-`sed -u 's/\//#/g' <<< $PWD`.tgz) . # tar -czf /home/gpl/.backups/04-22-10-01:13-#home#gpl#.rr#src.tgz .

I personally find myself having to reference

date --help

quite a bit as a result. So this nice alias saves me a lot of time. This is one bdash mofo. Works in sh and bash (posix), but will likely need to be changed for other shells due to the parameter substitution going on.. Just extend the sed command, I prefer sed to pretty much everything anyways.. but it's always preferable to put in the extra effort to go for as much builtin use as you can. Otherwise it's not a top one-liner, it's a lazyboy recliner.

Here's the old version:

alias dateh='date --help|sed "/^ *%%/,/^ *%Z/!d;s/ \+/ /g"|while read l;do date "+ %${l/% */}_${l/% */}_${l#* }";done|column -s_ -t'

This trick from my [ http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html bash_profile ]

shmore(){ local l L M="`echo;tput setab 4&&tput setaf 7` --- SHMore --- `tput sgr0`";L=2;while read l;do echo "${l}";((L++));[[ "$L" == "${LINES:-80}" ]]&&{ L=2;read -p"$M" -u1;echo;};done;}
2010-04-21 00:40:37
User: AskApache
Functions: echo read
6
SH
cat mod_log_config.c | shmore

or

shmore < mod_log_config.c

Most pagers like less, more, most, and others require additional processes to be loaded, additional cpu time used, and if that wasn't bad enough, most of them modify the output in ways that can be undesirable.

What I wanted was a "more" pager that was basically the same as running:

cat file

Without modifying the output and without additional processes being created, cpu used, etc. Normally if you want to scroll the output of cat file without modifying the output I would have to scroll back my terminal or screen buffer because less modifies the output.

After looking over many examples ranging from builtin cat functions created for csh, zsh, ksh, sh, and bash from the 80's, 90s, and more recent examples shipped with bash 4, and after much trial and error, I finally came up with something that satisifed my objective. It automatically adjusts to the size of your terminal window by using the LINES variable (or 80 lines if that is empty) so

This is a great function that will work as long as your shell works, so it will work just find if you are booted in single user mode and your /usr/bin directory is missing (where less and other pagers can be). Using builtins like this is fantastic and is comparable to how busybox works, as long as your shell works this will work.

One caveat/note: I always have access to a color terminal, and I always setup both the termcap and the terminfo packages for color terminals (and/or ncurses and slang), so for that reason I stuck the

tput setab 4; tput setaf 7

command at the beginning of the function, so it only runs 1 time, and that causes the -- SHMore -- prompt to have a blue background and bright white text.

This is one of hundreds of functions I have in my http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html">.bash_profile at http://www.askapache.com/">AskApache.com, but actually won't be included till the next update.

If you can improve this in any way at all please let me know, I would be very grateful! ( Like one thing I want is to be able to continue to the next screen by pressing any key instead of now having to press enter to continue)

alias head='head -n $((${LINES:-`tput lines 2>/dev/null||echo -n 12`} - 2))'
26

Run the alias command, then issue

ps aux | head

and resize your terminal window (putty/console/hyperterm/xterm/etc) then issue the same command and you'll understand.

${LINES:-`tput lines 2>/dev/null||echo -n 12`}

Insructs the shell that if LINES is not set or null to use the output from `tput lines` ( ncurses based terminal access ) to get the number of lines in your terminal. But furthermore, in case that doesn't work either, it will default to using the deafault of 12 (-2 = 10).

The default for HEAD is to output the first 10 lines, this alias changes the default to output the first x lines instead, where x is the number of lines currently displayed on your terminal - 2. The -2 is there so that the top line displayed is the command you ran that used HEAD, ie the prompt.

Depending on whether your PS1 and/or PROMPT_COMMAND output more than 1 line (mine is 3) you will want to increase from -2. So with my prompt being the following, I need -7, or - 5 if I only want to display the commandline at the top. ( http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash-power-prompt.html )

275MB/748MB

[7995:7993 - 0:186] 06:26:49 Thu Apr 08 [askapache@n1-backbone5:/dev/pts/0 +1] ~

In most shells the LINES variable is created automatically at login and updated when the terminal is resized (28 linux, 23/20 others for SIGWINCH) to contain the number of vertical lines that can fit in your terminal window. Because the alias doesn't hard-code the current LINES but relys on the $LINES variable, this is a dynamic alias that will always work on a tty device.

hb(){ sed "s/\($*\)/`tput setaf 2;tput setab 0;tput blink`\1`tput sgr0`/gI"; }
2010-04-07 08:45:26
User: AskApache
Functions: sed
-2
hb(){ sed "s/\($*\)/`tput setaf 2;tput setab 0;tput blink`\1`tput sgr0`/gI"; }

hb blinks, hc does a reverse color with background.. both very nice.

hc(){ sed "s/\($*\)/`tput setaf 0;tput setab 6`\1`tput sgr0`/gI"; }

Run this:

command ps -Hacl -F S -A f | hc ".*$PPID.*" | hb ".*$$.*"

Your welcome ;)

From my bash profile - http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html

termtrace(){( strace -s 1000 -e write tput $@ 2>&2 2>&1 ) | grep -o '"[^"]*"';}
2010-03-17 08:53:41
User: AskApache
Functions: grep strace tput write
3

Depending on the TERM, the terminfo version, ncurses version, etc.. you may be using a varied assortment of terminal escape codes. With this command you can easily find out exactly what is going on.. This is terminal escape zen!

( 2>&2 strace -f -F -e write -s 1000 sh -c 'echo -e "initc\nis2\ncnorm\nrmso\nsgr0" | tput -S' 2>&1 ) | grep -o '"\\[^"]*"' --color=always

"\33]4;%p1%d;rgb:%p2%{255}%*%{1000}%/%2.2X/%p3%{255}%*%{1000}%/%2.2X/%p4%{255}%*%{1000}%/%2.2X\33\\\33[!p\33[?3;4l\33[4l\33>\33[?12l\33[?25h\33[27m\33(B\33[m"

Lets say you want to find out what you need to echo in order to get the text to blink..

echo -e "`tput blink`This will blink`tput sgr0` This wont"

Now you can use this function instead of calling tput (tput is much smarter for portable code because it works differently depending on the current TERM, and tput -T anyterm works too.) to turn that echo into a much faster executing code. tput queries files, opens files, etc.. but echo is very strait and narrow.

So now you can do this:

echo -e "\33[5mThis will blink\33(B\33[m This wont"

More at http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html

echo $(( `ulimit -u` - `find /proc -maxdepth 1 \( -user $USER -o -group $GROUPNAME \) -type d|wc -l` ))
2010-03-12 08:42:49
User: AskApache
Functions: echo wc
1

There is a limit to how many processes you can run at the same time for each user, especially with web hosts. If the maximum # of processes for your user is 200, then the following sets OPTIMUM_P to 100.

OPTIMUM_P=$(( (`ulimit -u` - `find /proc -maxdepth 1 \( -user $USER -o -group $GROUPNAME \) -type d|wc -l`) / 2 ))

This is very useful in scripts because this is such a fast low-resource-intensive (compared to ps, who, lsof, etc) way to determine how many processes are currently running for whichever user. The number of currently running processes is subtracted from the high limit setup for the account (see limits.conf, pam, initscript).

An easy to understand example- this searches the current directory for shell scripts, and runs up to 100 'file' commands at the same time, greatly speeding up the command.

find . -type f | xargs -P $OPTIMUM_P -iFNAME file FNAME | sed -n '/shell script text/p'

I am using it in my http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html especially for the xargs command. Xargs has a -P option that lets you specify how many processes to run at the same time. For instance if you have 1000 urls in a text file and wanted to download all of them fast with curl, you could download 100 at a time (check ps output on a separate [pt]ty for proof) like this:

cat url-list.txt | xargs -I '{}' -P $OPTIMUM_P curl -O '{}'

I like to do things as fast as possible on my servers. I have several types of servers and hosting environments, some with very restrictive jail shells with 20processes limit, some with 200, some with 8000, so for the jailed shells my xargs -P10 would kill my shell or dump core. Using the above I can set the -P value dynamically, so xargs always works, like this.

cat url-list.txt | xargs -I '{}' -P $OPTIMUM_P curl -O '{}'

If you were building a process-killer (very common for cheap hosting) this would also be handy.

Note that if you are only allowed 20 or so processes, you should just use -P1 with xargs.

echo "ulimit `ulimit -a|sed -e 's/^.*\([a-z]\))\(.*\)$/-\1\2/'|tr "\n" ' '`"
2010-03-12 06:46:54
User: AskApache
Functions: echo
2

It is helpful to know the current limits placed on your account, and using this shortcut is a quick way to figuring out which values to change for optimization or security.

Alias is:

alias ulimith="command ulimit -a|sed 's/^.*\([a-z]\))\(.*\)$/-\1\2/;s/^/ulimit /'|tr '\n' ' ';echo"

Here's the result of this command:

ulimit -c 0 -d unlimited -e 0 -f unlimited -i 155648 -l 32 -m unlimited -n 8192 -p 8 -q 819200 -r 0 -s 10240 -t unlimited -u unlimited -v unlimited -x unlimited ulimit -a

core file size (blocks, -c) 0

data seg size (kbytes, -d) unlimited

scheduling priority (-e) 0

file size (blocks, -f) unlimited

pending signals (-i) 155648

max locked memory (kbytes, -l) 32

max memory size (kbytes, -m) unlimited

open files (-n) 8192

pipe size (512 bytes, -p) 8

POSIX message queues (bytes, -q) 819200

real-time priority (-r) 0

stack size (kbytes, -s) 10240

cpu time (seconds, -t) unlimited

max user processes (-u) unlimited

virtual memory (kbytes, -v) unlimited

file locks (-x) unlimited

function setx(){ sed '/[xv]/!Q2' <<< $- && { set +xv; export PS4=">>> "; } || { export PS4="`tput setaf 3`>>> `tput sgr0`"; set -xv; }; }
2010-02-14 01:25:44
User: AskApache
Functions: export sed set
1

Running this command turns shell tracing and shell verbose debugging on or off. Not only does it do that, it also uses your terminals builtin method of setting colors to make debugging much easier.

It looks at the current shell options contained in the $- special bash variable and that lets this function set the opposite of the current value. So from the shell you could do a:

setx; echo "y" | ( cat -t ) | echo "d"; setx

and it will turn on debbuggin.

This is an amazingly useful function that is perfect to add system-wide by adding it to /etc/profile or /etc/bashrc.. You can run it from the shell, and you can also use it in your shell scripts like my .bash_profile - http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html

psu(){ command ps -Hcl -F S f -u ${1:-$USER}; }
2009-11-13 06:10:33
User: AskApache
Functions: command ps
4

An easy function to get a process tree listing (very detailed) for all the processes of any gived user.

This function is also in my http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html

for c in `seq 0 255`;do t=5;[[ $c -lt 108 ]]&&t=0;for i in `seq $t 5`;do echo -e "\e[0;48;$i;${c}m|| $i:$c `seq -s+0 $(($COLUMNS/2))|tr -d '[0-9]'`\e[0m";done;done
2009-11-03 09:12:13
User: AskApache
Functions: c++ echo
15

I've been using linux for almost a decade and only recently discovered that most terminals like putty, xterm, xfree86, vt100, etc., support hundreds of shades of colors, backgrounds and text/terminal effects.

This simply prints out a ton of them, the output is pretty amazing.

If you use non-x terminals all the time like I do, it can really be helpful to know how to tweak colors and terminal capabilities. Like:

echo $'\33[H\33[2J'
( trap '' 1; ( nice -n 19 sleep 2h && command rm -v -rf /garbage/ &>/dev/null && trap 1 ) & )
2

Check out the usage of 'trap', you may not have seen this one much. This command provides a way to schedule commands at certain times by running them after sleep finishes sleeping. In the example 'sleep 2h' sleeps for 2 hours. What is cool about this command is that it uses the 'trap' builtin bash command to remove the SIGHUP trap that normally exits all processes started by the shell upon logout. The 'trap 1' command then restores the normal SIGHUP behaviour.

It also uses the 'nice -n 19' command which causes the sleep process to be run with minimal CPU.

Further, it runs all the commands within the 2nd parentheses in the background. This is sweet cuz you can fire off as many of these as you want. Very helpful for shell scripts.

sh -c 'S=askapache R=htaccess; find . -mount -type f|xargs -P5 -iFF grep -l -m1 "$S" FF|xargs -P5 -iFF sed -i -e "s%${S}%${R}%g" FF'
9

I needed a way to search all files in a web directory that contained a certain string, and replace that string with another string. In the example, I am searching for "askapache" and replacing that string with "htaccess". I wanted this to happen as a cron job, and it was important that this happened as fast as possible while at the same time not hogging the CPU since the machine is a server.

So this script uses the nice command to run the sh shell with the command, which makes the whole thing run with priority 19, meaning it won't hog CPU processing. And the -P5 option to the xargs command means it will run 5 separate grep and sed processes simultaneously, so this is much much faster than running a single grep or sed. You may want to do -P0 which is unlimited if you aren't worried about too many processes or if you don't have to deal with process killers in the bg.

Also, the -m1 command to grep means stop grepping this file for matches after the first match, which also saves time.

sleeper(){ while `ps -p $1 &>/dev/null`; do echo -n "${2:-.}"; sleep ${3:-1}; done; }; export -f sleeper
12

Very useful in shell scripts because you can run a task nicely in the background using job-control and output progress until it completes.

Here's an example of how I use it in backup scripts to run gpg in the background to encrypt an archive file (which I create in this same way). $! is the process ID of the last run command, which is saved here as the variable PI, then sleeper is called with the process id of the gpg task (PI), and sleeper is also specified to output : instead of the default . every 3 seconds instead of the default 1. So a shorter version would be sleeper $!;

The wait is also used here, though it may not be needed on your system.

echo ">>> ENCRYPTING SQL BACKUP" gpg --output archive.tgz.asc --encrypt archive.tgz 1>/dev/null & PI=$!; sleeper $PI ":" 3; wait $PI && rm archive.tgz &>/dev/null

Previously to get around the $! not always being available, I would instead check for the existance of the process ID by checking if the directory /proc/$PID existed, but not everyone uses proc anymore. That version is currently the one at http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html but I plan on upgrading to this new version soon.

declare -ax CC; for i in `seq 0 7`;do ii=$(($i+7)); CC[$i]="\033[1;3${i}m"; CC[$ii]="\033[0;3${i}m"; done
1

I was looking for the fastest way to create a bunch of ansi escapes for use in echo -e commands throughout a lot of my shell scripts. This is what I came up with, and I actually stick that loop command in a function and then just call that at the beginning of my scripts to not clutter the environment with these escape codes, which can wreck havok on my terminal when I'm dumping the environment. More of a cool way to store escape ansi codes in an array. You can echo them like:

echo -e "${CC[15]}This text is black on bright green background."

I usually just use with a function:

# setup_colors - Adds colors to array CC for global use # 30 - Black, 31 - Red, 32 - Green, 33 - Yellow, 34 - Blue, 35 - Magenta, 36 - Blue/Green, 37 - White, 30/42 - Black on Green '30\;42' function setup_colors(){ declare -ax CC; for i in `seq 0 7`;do ii=$(($i+7));CC[$i]="\033[1;3${i}m";CC[$ii]="\033[0;3${i}m";done;CC[15]="\033[30;42m"; export R='\033[0;00m';export X="\033[1;37m"; }; export -f setup_colors

CC[15] has a background of bright green which is why it is separate. R resets everything, and X is my default font of bright white.

CC[15]="\033[30;42m"; R=$'\033[0;00m'; X=$'\033[1;37m'

Those are just my favorite colors that I often use in my scripts. You can test which colors by running

for i in $(seq 0 $((${#CC[@]} - 1))); do echo -e "${CC[$i]}[$i]\n$R"; done

See: http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html for more usage.

echo -ne "\033]0;`id -un`:`id -gn`@`hostname||uname -n|sed 1q` `who -m|sed -e "s%^.* \(pts/[0-9]*\).*(\(.*\))%[\1] (\2)%g"` [`uptime|sed -e "s/.*: \([^,]*\).*/\1/" -e "s/ //g"` / `ps aux|wc -l`]\007"
2009-09-19 06:57:53
User: AskApache
Functions: echo
4

I usually have 5 or more ssh connections to various servers, and putting this command in my .bash_profile file makes my putty window or x terminal window title change to this easily recognizable and descriptive text. Includes the username, group, server hostname, where I am connecting from (for SSH tunneling), which device pts, current server load, and how many processes are running.

You can also use this for your PROMPT_COMMAND variable, which updates the window title to the current values each time you exec a command.

I prefix running this in my .bash_profile with

[[ ! -z "$SSH_TTY" ]] &&

which makes sure it only does this when connecting via SSH with a TTY.

Here's some rougher examples from http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html

# If set, the value is executed as a command prior to issuing each primary prompt. #H=$((hostname || uname -n) 2>/dev/null | sed 1q);W=$(whoami) #export PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -ne "\033]0;${W}@${H}:${PWD/#$HOME/~} ${SSH_TTY/\/dev\//} [`uptime|sed -e "s/.*: \([^,]*\).*/\1/" -e "s/ //g"`]\007"' #PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -ne "\033]0;`id -un`:`id -gn`@`hostname||uname -n 2>/dev/null|sed 1q` `command who -m|sed -e "s%^.* \(pts/[0-9]*\).*(\(.*\))%[\1] (\2)%g"` [`uptime|sed -e "s/.*: \([^,]*\).*/\1/" -e "s/ //g"` / `command ps aux|wc -l`]\007"' #[[ -z "$SSH_TTY" ]] || export PROMPT_COMMAND #[[ -z "$SSH_TTY" ]] && [[ -f /dev/stdout ]] && SSH_TTY=/dev/stdout

And here's a simple function example for setting the title:

function set_window_title(){ echo -e "\033]0; ${1:-$USER@$HOST - $SHLVL} \007"; }
for p in ${PATH//:/ }; do [[ -d $p && -x $p ]] && echo $p; done
2009-09-19 06:43:57
User: AskApache
Functions: echo
1

Finds executable and existing directories in your path that can be useful if migrating a profile script to another system. This is faster and smaller than any other method due to using only bash builtin commands.

See also:

+ http://www.commandlinefu.com/commands/view/743/list-all-execs-in-path-usefull-for-grepping-the-resulting-list

+ http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html

S=$SSH_TTY && (sleep 3 && echo -n 'Peace... '>$S & ) && (sleep 5 && echo -n 'Love... '>$S & ) && (sleep 7 && echo 'and Intergalactic Happiness!'>$S & )
2009-08-19 07:57:16
User: AskApache
Functions: echo sleep
-2

Ummmm.. Saw that gem on some dead-head hippies VW bus at phish this summer.. It's actually one of my favorite ways of using bash, very clean. It shows what you can do with the cool advanced features like job control, redirection, combining commands that don't wait for each other, and the thing I like the most is the use of the ( ) to make this process heirarchy below, which comes in very handy when using fifos for adding optimization to your scripts or commands with similar acrobatics.

F UID PID PPID WCHAN RSS PSR CMD

1 gplovr 30667 1 wait 1324 1 -bash

0 gplovr 30672 30667 - 516 3 \_ sleep 3

1 gplovr 30669 1 wait 1324 1 -bash

0 gplovr 30673 30669 - 516 0 \_ sleep 5

1 gplovr 30671 1 wait 1324 1 -bash

0 gplovr 30674 30671 - 516 1 \_ sleep 7

command ps -Hacl -F S -A f
2009-08-19 07:08:19
User: AskApache
Functions: command ps
8

I don't truly enjoy many commands more than this one, which I alias to be ps1.. Cool to be able to see the heirarchy and makes it clearer what need to be killed, and whats really going on.

echo "nohup command rm -rf /phpsessions 1>&2 &>/dev/null 1>&2 &>/dev/null&" | at now + 3 hours 1>&2 &>/dev/null
2009-08-18 07:31:17
User: AskApache
Functions: at echo
1

This is helpful for shell scripts, I use it in my custom php install script to schedule to delete the build files in 3 hours, as the php install script is completely automated and is made to run slow.

Does require at, which some environments without crontab still do have.

You can add as many commands to the at you want. Here's how I delete them in case the script gets killed. (trapped)

atq |awk '{print $1}'|xargs -iJ atrm J &>/dev/null

nohup /bin/sh myscript.sh 1>&2 &>/dev/null 1>&2 &>/dev/null&
2009-08-18 07:24:52
User: AskApache
Functions: nohup
6

This command runs your shell script in the background with no output of any kind, and it will remain running even after you logout.

eval $(sed -n "s/^d[^D]*DB_\([NUPH]\)[ASO].*',[^']*'\([^']*\)'.*/_\1='\2'/p" wp-config.php) && mysqldump --opt --add-drop-table -u$_U -p$_P -h$_H $_N | gpg -er AskApache >`date +%m%d%y-%H%M.$_N.sqls`
2009-08-18 07:03:08
User: AskApache
Functions: eval gpg sed
3

The coolest way I've found to backup a wordpress mysql database using encryption, and using local variables created directly from the wp-config.php file so that you don't have to type them- which would allow someone sniffing your terminal or viewing your shell history to see your info.

I use a variation of this for my servers that have hundreds of wordpress installs and databases by using a find command for the wp-config.php file and passing that through xargs to my function.