Commands tagged boot (11)

  • If you are doing some tests which require reboots (e. g. startup skripts, kernel module parameters, ...), this is very time intensive, if you have got a hardware with a long pre-boot phase due to hardware checks. At this time, kexec can help, which only restarts the kernel with all related stuff. First the kernel to be started is loaded, then kexec -e jumps up to start it. Is as hard as a reboot -f, but several times faster (e. g. 1 Minute instead of 12 on some servers here). Show Sample Output


    21
    /sbin/kexec -l /boot/$KERNEL --append="$KERNELPARAMTERS" --initrd=/boot/$INITRD; sync; /sbin/kexec -e
    olorin · 2009-08-03 07:36:49 2
  • look at /boot/grub/menu.lst for somethig like: ## additional options to use with the default boot option, but not with the ## alternatives ## e.g. defoptions=vga=791 resume=/dev/hda5 ## defoptions=vga=795 # defoptions=vga=873 ## altoption boot targets option ## multiple altoptions lines are allowed ## e.g. altoptions=(extra menu suffix) extra boot options ## altoptions=(recovery) single # altoptions=(verbose mode) vga=775 debug # altoptions=(console mode) vga=ask # altoptions=(graphic mode) quiet splash # altoptions=(recovery mode) single vga=(decimal value) is framebuffer mode Show Sample Output


    4
    sudo hwinfo --framebuffer
    hute37 · 2010-10-03 14:45:02 0
  • * size must be 640?480 pixels * only has 14 colors * save it in XPM format Edit /boot/grub/menu.lst and add splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/grubimg.xpm make sure for your path name and hard disk


    3
    convert image123.png -colors 14 -resize 640x480 grubimg.xpm
    starchox · 2009-03-12 22:55:10 0

  • 2
    time (pv file.iso | dd bs=1M oflag=sync of=/dev/sdX 2>/dev/null)
    dash · 2012-01-29 09:44:33 0
  • If you don't want your computer to try to boot form a USB stick that used to be used as a boot device (maybe for a live linux distro), you will have to remove the boot loader from your stick other wise the boot will fail each time the device is attached to your PC.


    0
    dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdb bs=446 count=1
    dcabanis · 2009-06-07 10:29:49 1
  • Usage: VBoxBlockBoot [Virtual_Machine] [Block_device] Eg: VBoxBlockBoot WinXP /dev/sdc In another words vm=usb; usb=sdc;sudo umount /dev/$usb* ; sudo chmod 777 /dev/$usb ; VBoxManage storageattach $vm --medium ~/raw-HD-4-VB/$usb.vmdk --type hdd --storagectl "IDE Controller" --device 0 --port 0 ; VBoxManage startvm $vm Where vm --> Name of the virtual machine to start usb --> Block device to use. (/dev/sdc) This can used after setup up a boot loader on to my USB pen drive or HDD (After creating Live USB). Here root privilege is needed but not granted to Virtual Box. Thus we can access all our VM.( If we run VBox as root we can't access our VMs). Root privilege is used to - Unmount the storage device - Chmod to full access (777) Requirements:- 1. Device information file (rawvmdk file) created by the following command. Need to run only once. Not bad to run many. VBoxCreateRawDisk() { VBoxManage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename ~/.rawHD4VB_`basename "$1"`.vmdk -rawdisk "$1"; } 2. Root privilege to umount & chmod 3. Real storage medium (ie /dev/*) (Non-virtual such as USB HD, pen drive, a partition) 4. A virtual m/c already available (here "usb") vm=usb; usb=sdc;sudo umount /dev/$usb* ; sudo chmod 777 /dev/$usb ; VBoxManage storageattach $vm --medium ~/raw-HD-4-VB/$usb.vmdk --type hdd --storagectl "IDE Controller" --device 0 --port 0 ; VBoxManage startvm $vm VBoxBlockBoot() { sudo umount "$2"*; sudo chmod 777 "$2"; VBoxManage storageattach "$1" --medium ~/.rawHD4VB_`basename "$2"`.vmdk --type hdd --storagectl "IDE Controller" --device 0 --port 0 ; VBoxManage startvm "$1"; } Show Sample Output


    0
    VBoxBlockBoot() { sudo umount "$2"*; sudo chmod 777 "$2"; VBoxManage storageattach "$1" --medium ~/.rawHD4VB_`basename "$2"`.vmdk --type hdd --storagectl "IDE Controller" --device 0 --port 0 ; VBoxManage startvm "$1";}
    totti · 2011-07-29 13:04:19 0
  • eg: VBoxManage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename ~/.VBox_sdc.vmdk -rawdisk /dev/sdc In order to start virtual box using block devices, ( Or to boot from it) run as ROOT sudo VirtualBox Then add & select the vmdk file as a device. At last Start the virtual box. - This cmd needs to run once for a device. - See command 8936 to run with out using ROOT power and easy handling of Virtual m/c


    0
    VBoxManage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename [path/to/file/name.vmdk] -rawdisk /dev/[block_device]
    totti · 2011-08-19 14:26:22 5
  • Then exit from the shell. exit some time need to exit twice exit exit Now the OS will boot with the new parameters.


    0
    echo "root=/dev/sda7" > /proc/param.conf
    totti · 2011-09-27 18:06:53 1
  • Show running time. eta, progressbar Show Sample Output


    0
    pv -petrs $(stat -c %s file.iso) file.iso | dd bs=1M oflag=sync of=/dev/sdX
    f4m8 · 2012-01-30 07:16:29 0

  • 0
    pv file.iso >/dev/sdX
    qiet72 · 2012-01-30 09:38:15 0
  • From live CD mount(open) the Ubuntu installed drive. Copy the location (press Ctrl+l, Ctrl+c ) eg: /media/ubuntuuuu Open terminal (Apllication->accessories->terminal) Type this: sudo grub-install --root-directory=/media/ubuntuuuu /dev/sda (replace /media/ubuntuuuu with what u got (ie paste)) Will show success message. Now reboot


    -2
    sudo grub-install --root-directory=/media/ubuntu /dev/sda
    totti · 2011-09-27 17:51:56 0

What's this?

commandlinefu.com is the place to record those command-line gems that you return to again and again. That way others can gain from your CLI wisdom and you from theirs too. All commands can be commented on, discussed and voted up or down.

Share Your Commands


Check These Out

Print a row of characters across the terminal
shorter than alternative

Remove ( color / special / escape / ANSI ) codes, from text, with sed
Remove ( color / special / escape / ANSI ) codes, from text, with sed Credit to the original folks who I've copied this command from. The diff here is: Theirs: [m|K] Theirs is supposed to remove \E[NUMBERS;NUMBERS[m OR K] This statement is incorrect in 2 ways. 1. The letters m and K are two of more than 20+ possible letters that can end these sequences. 2. Inside []'s , OR is already assumed, so they are also looking for sequences ending with | which is not correct. This : [a-zA-Z] This resolves the "OR" issue noted above, and takes care of all sequences, as they all end with a lower or upper cased letter. This ensures 100% of any escape code 'mess' is removed.

Work out numerical last month
Work out last months numerical value.

RTFM function
Same as the other rtfm's, but using the more correct xdg-open instead of $BROWSER. I can't find a way to open info only if the term exists, so it stays out of my version.

Encode text in Base64 using Perl
MIME::Base64 is a part of Perl5 distribution. You can also use decode_base64 for oposite result.

USE WITH CAUTION: perminately delete old kernel packages

notify yourself when a long-running command which has ALREADY STARTED is finished
If you want to be notified when a long-running command is finished, but you have already started it: CTRL+Z $ fg; echo "finished" | sendmail [email protected] I use a script to post a tweet, which sends me a txt: $ fg; echo "finished" | tweet

Binary digits Matrix effect
Prints 0's and 1's in The Matrix style. You can easily modify to print 0-9 digits using $RANDOM %10 insted of %2.

Color man pages
Add the followin to ~/.bashrc #colour export LESS_TERMCAP_mb=$'\E[01;31m' export LESS_TERMCAP_md=$'\E[01;37m' export LESS_TERMCAP_me=$'\E[0m' export LESS_TERMCAP_se=$'\E[0m' export LESS_TERMCAP_so=$'\E[01;44;33m' export LESS_TERMCAP_ue=$'\E[0m' export LESS_TERMCAP_us=$'\E[01;32m'

Change Title of Terminal Window to Verbose Info useful at Login
I usually have 5 or more ssh connections to various servers, and putting this command in my .bash_profile file makes my putty window or x terminal window title change to this easily recognizable and descriptive text. Includes the username, group, server hostname, where I am connecting from (for SSH tunneling), which device pts, current server load, and how many processes are running. You can also use this for your PROMPT_COMMAND variable, which updates the window title to the current values each time you exec a command. I prefix running this in my .bash_profile with $ [[ ! -z "$SSH_TTY" ]] && which makes sure it only does this when connecting via SSH with a TTY. Here's some rougher examples from http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html $ # If set, the value is executed as a command prior to issuing each primary prompt. $ #H=$((hostname || uname -n) 2>/dev/null | sed 1q);W=$(whoami) $ #export PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -ne "\033]0;${W}@${H}:${PWD/#$HOME/~} ${SSH_TTY/\/dev\//} [`uptime|sed -e "s/.*: \([^,]*\).*/\1/" -e "s/ //g"`]\007"' $ #PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -ne "\033]0;`id -un`:`id -gn`@`hostname||uname -n 2>/dev/null|sed 1q` `command who -m|sed -e "s%^.* \(pts/[0-9]*\).*(\(.*\))%[\1] (\2)%g"` [`uptime|sed -e "s/.*: \([^,]*\).*/\1/" -e "s/ //g"` / `command ps aux|wc -l`]\007"' $ #[[ -z "$SSH_TTY" ]] || export PROMPT_COMMAND $ #[[ -z "$SSH_TTY" ]] && [[ -f /dev/stdout ]] && SSH_TTY=/dev/stdout And here's a simple function example for setting the title: $ function set_window_title(){ echo -e "\033]0; ${1:[email protected]$HOST - $SHLVL} \007"; }


Stay in the loop…

Follow the Tweets.

Every new command is wrapped in a tweet and posted to Twitter. Following the stream is a great way of staying abreast of the latest commands. For the more discerning, there are Twitter accounts for commands that get a minimum of 3 and 10 votes - that way only the great commands get tweeted.

» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu
» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu3
» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu10

Subscribe to the feeds.

Use your favourite RSS aggregator to stay in touch with the latest commands. There are feeds mirroring the 3 Twitter streams as well as for virtually every other subset (users, tags, functions,…):

Subscribe to the feed for: