Commands tagged bash (806)

  • This command creates and burns a gapless audio CD with 99 tracks. Each track is a 30 second sine wave, the first is 1 Hz, the second 2 Hz, and so on, up to 99 Hz. This is useful for testing audio systems (how low can your bass go?) and for creating the constant vibrations needed to make non-Newtonian fluids (like cornstarch and water) crawl around. Note, this temporarily creates 500MB of .cdda files in the current directory. If you don't use the "rm" at the end of the command, you can burn more disks using cdrdao write cdrdao.toc Prerequisites: a blank CD-R in /dev/cdrw, sox (, and cdrdao ( I'm also assuming a recent version of bash for the brace expansion (which just looks nicer than using seq(1), but isn't necessary). Show Sample Output

    (echo CD_DA; for f in {01..99}; do echo "$f Hz">&2; sox -nt cdda -r44100 -c2 $f.cdda synth 30 sine $f; echo TRACK AUDIO; echo FILE \"$f.cdda\" 0; done) > cdrdao.toc && cdrdao write cdrdao.toc && rm ??.cdda cdrdao.toc
    hackerb9 · 2009-11-17 06:23:42 3
  • This function displays the latest comic from One of the best things about xkcd is the title text when you hover over the comic, so this function also displays that after you close the comic. To get a random xkcd comic, I also use the following: xkcdrandom(){ wget -qO-|tee >(feh $(grep -Po '(?<=")http://imgs[^/]+/comics/[^"]+\.\w{3}'))|grep -Po '(?<=(\w{3})" title=").*(?=" alt)';}

    xkcd(){ wget -qO-|tee >(feh $(grep -Po '(?<=")http://imgs[^/]+/comics/[^"]+\.\w{3}'))|grep -Po '(?<=(\w{3})" title=").*(?=" alt)';}
    eightmillion · 2009-11-27 09:11:47 11

  • 24
    <ESC> .
    wincus · 2010-01-22 14:27:44 6
  • If you have some drive imaging to do, you can boot into any liveCD and use a commodity machine. The drives will be written in parallel. To improve efficiency, specify a larger block size in dd: dd if=/dev/sda bs=64k | tee >(dd of=/dev/sdb bs=64k) | dd of=/dev/sdc bs=64k To image more drives , insert them as additional arguments to tee: dd if=/dev/sda | tee >(dd of=/dev/sdb) >(dd of=/dev/sdc) >(dd of=/dev/sdd) | dd of=/dev/sde

    dd if=/dev/sda | tee >(dd of=/dev/sdb) | dd of=/dev/sdc
    nerd65536 · 2009-12-11 17:34:38 2
  • This makes an alias for a command named 'busy'. The 'busy' command opens a random file in /usr/include to a random line with vim. Drop this in your .bash_aliases and make sure that file is initialized in your .bashrc.

    alias busy='my_file=$(find /usr/include -type f | sort -R | head -n 1); my_len=$(wc -l $my_file | awk "{print $1}"); let "r = $RANDOM % $my_len" 2>/dev/null; vim +$r $my_file'
    busybee · 2010-03-09 21:48:41 8
  • If you have used bash for any scripting, you've used the date command alot. It's perfect for using as a way to create filename's dynamically within aliases,functions, and commands like below.. This is actually an update to my first alias, since a few commenters (below) had good observations on what was wrong with my first command. # creating a date-based ssh-key for ssh-keygen -f ~/.ssh/`date [email protected]$HOSTNAME-%m-%d-%g` -C '[email protected]' # /home/gpl/.ssh/[email protected] # create a tar+gzip backup of the current directory tar -czf $(date +$HOME/.backups/%m-%d-%g-%R-`sed -u 's/\//#/g' <<< $PWD`.tgz) . # tar -czf /home/gpl/.backups/04-22-10-01:13-#home#gpl#.rr#src.tgz . I personally find myself having to reference date --help quite a bit as a result. So this nice alias saves me a lot of time. This is one bdash mofo. Works in sh and bash (posix), but will likely need to be changed for other shells due to the parameter substitution going on.. Just extend the sed command, I prefer sed to pretty much everything anyways.. but it's always preferable to put in the extra effort to go for as much builtin use as you can. Otherwise it's not a top one-liner, it's a lazyboy recliner. Here's the old version: alias dateh='date --help|sed "/^ *%%/,/^ *%Z/!d;s/ \+/ /g"|while read l;do date "+ %${l/% */}_${l/% */}_${l#* }";done|column -s_ -t' This trick from my [ bash_profile ] Show Sample Output

    alias dateh='date --help|sed -n "/^ *%%/,/^ *%Z/p"|while read l;do F=${l/% */}; date +%$F:"|'"'"'${F//%n/ }'"'"'|${l#* }";done|sed "s/\ *|\ */|/g" |column -s "|" -t'
    AskApache · 2010-04-21 01:22:18 5
  • If you should happen to find yourself needing some binary numbers, this is a quickie way of doing it. If you need more digits, just add more "{0..1}" sequences for each digit you need. You can assign them to an array, too, and access them by their decimal equivalent for a quickie binary to decimal conversion (for larger values it's probably better to use another method). Note: this works in bash, ksh and zsh. For zsh, though, you'll need to issue a setopt KSH_ARRAYS to make the array zero-based. binary=({0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}) echo ${binary[9]} Show Sample Output

    echo {0..1}{0..1}{0..1}{0..1}
    dennisw · 2009-06-23 17:30:20 5
  • This function takes a word or a phrase as arguments and then fetches definitions using Google's "define" syntax. The "nl" and perl portion isn't strictly necessary. It just makes the output a bit more readable, but this also works: define(){ local y="[email protected]";curl -sA"Opera" "${y// /+}"|grep -Po '(?<=<li>)[^<]+';} If your version of grep doesn't have perl compatible regex support, then you can use this version: define(){ local y="[email protected]";curl -sA"Opera" "${y// /+}"|grep -Eo '<li>[^<]+'|sed 's/<li>//g'|nl|perl -MHTML::Entities -pe 'decode_entities($_)' 2>/dev/null;} Show Sample Output

    define(){ local y="[email protected]";curl -sA"Opera" "${y// /+}"|grep -Po '(?<=<li>)[^<]+'|nl|perl -MHTML::Entities -pe 'decode_entities($_)' 2>/dev/null;}
    eightmillion · 2010-01-29 05:01:11 5
  • Delete a range of line

    sed -i <file> -re '<start>,<end>d'
    Zulu · 2012-02-02 17:59:18 1

  • 17
    env PS4=' ${BASH_SOURCE}:${LINENO}(${FUNCNAME[0]}) ' sh -x /etc/profile
    oernii2 · 2009-10-07 14:44:59 4
  • I've been using linux for almost a decade and only recently discovered that most terminals like putty, xterm, xfree86, vt100, etc., support hundreds of shades of colors, backgrounds and text/terminal effects. This simply prints out a ton of them, the output is pretty amazing. If you use non-x terminals all the time like I do, it can really be helpful to know how to tweak colors and terminal capabilities. Like: echo $'\33[H\33[2J'

    for c in `seq 0 255`;do t=5;[[ $c -lt 108 ]]&&t=0;for i in `seq $t 5`;do echo -e "\e[0;48;$i;${c}m|| $i:$c `seq -s+0 $(($COLUMNS/2))|tr -d '[0-9]'`\e[0m";done;done
    AskApache · 2009-11-03 09:12:13 2
  • Bash can accept '0x' and '0' notation for hexidecimal and octal numbers, so you just have to output the values. Show Sample Output

    echo $((0x1fe)) $((033))
    Mozai · 2011-12-06 02:00:42 1
  • Print out list of all branches with last commit date to the branch, including relative time since commit and color coding. Show Sample Output

    for k in `git branch|perl -pe s/^..//`;do echo -e `git show --pretty=format:"%Cgreen%ci %Cblue%cr%Creset" $k|head -n 1`\\t$k;done|sort -r
    brunost · 2009-06-03 08:25:00 3
  • You can specify a range via '-'. Show Sample Output

    dbbolton · 2010-06-12 02:51:04 0
  • This version uses Pipes, but is easier for the common user to grasp... instead of using sed or some other more complicated method, it uses the tr command Show Sample Output

    echo $PATH | tr \: \\n
    crk · 2009-09-09 02:10:04 2
  • It happens that sometime you remember that you used a special command short time before and you want to check the command again. WIth this command you can just put the beginning of a command and then bash will look for you and it will print back safely withou executing Show Sample Output

    acirulli · 2011-10-13 08:37:58 2
  • Ever needed to test firewalls but didn't have netcat, telnet or even FTP? Enter /dev/tcp, your new best friend. /dev/tcp/(hostname)/(port) is a bash builtin that bash can use to open connections to TCP and UDP ports. This one-liner opens a connection on a port to a server and lets you read and write to it from the terminal. How it works: First, exec sets up a redirect for /dev/tcp/$server/$port to file descriptor 5. Then, as per some excellent feedback from @flatcap, we launch a redirect from file descriptor 5 to STDOUT and send that to the background (which is what causes the PID to be printed when the commands are run), and then redirect STDIN to file descriptor 5 with the second cat. Finally, when the second cat dies (the connection is closed), we clean up the file descriptor with 'exec 5>&-'. It can be used to test FTP, HTTP, NTP, or can connect to netcat listening on a port (makes for a simple chat client!) Replace /tcp/ with /udp/ to use UDP instead.

    exec 5<>/dev/tcp/; cat <&5 & cat >&5; exec 5>&-
    tyzbit · 2015-07-30 21:12:38 9
  • Shorter version. Show Sample Output

    echo "${PATH//:/$'\n'}"
    camspiers · 2009-08-26 23:12:05 4
  • Bash history commands are those that begin with the character ! (eg. the most popular 'sudo !!' Explained here => By default bash immediately executes the history command. Setting this shell option will make bash first allow you to verify/edit an history command before executing it. To set this option permanently, put this command in ~/.profile or ~/.bashrc file. To unset this option issue following command. shopt -u histverify Show Sample Output

    shopt -s histverify
    b_t · 2011-10-27 00:33:34 1
  • echo "" | sed -e's/%\([0-9A-F][0-9A-F]\)/\\\\\x\1/g' | xargs echo -e Works under bash on linux. just alter the '-e' option to its corresponding equivalence in your system to execute escape characters correctly.

    sed -e's/%\([0-9A-F][0-9A-F]\)/\\\\\x\1/g' | xargs echo -e
    mohan43u · 2009-05-25 05:37:44 3
  • I've used this a number of times troubleshooting user permissions. Instead of just 'su - user' you can throw another hyphen and stay in the original directory. Show Sample Output

    su -- user
    matthewdavis · 2009-09-28 04:23:43 1
  • Though without infinite time and knowledge of how the site will be designed in the future this may stop working, it still will serve as a simple straight forward starting point. This uses the observation that the only item marked as strong on the page is the single logical line that includes the italicized fact. If future revisions of the page show failure, or intermittent failure, one may simply alter the above to read. wget -O - 2>/dev/null | tee lastfact | grep \<strong\> | sed "s;^.*<i>\(.*\)</i>.*$;\1;" The file lastfact, can then be examined whenever the command fails.

    wget -O - 2>/dev/null | grep \<strong\> | sed "s;^.*<i>\(.*\)</i>.*$;\1;"
    tali713 · 2010-03-30 23:49:30 1

  • 13
    compgen -A function
    patrick2000 · 2010-04-30 14:27:16 0

  • 12
    <ALT> .
    new_user · 2010-01-22 15:06:26 2

  • 12
    <ctrl+z> bg
    lucafaus · 2010-10-26 18:07:54 0
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Bash process substitution which curls the website '' and executes the shell script embedded in the page. This is obviously not the most secure way to run something like this, and we will scold you if you try. The smarter way would be: Download locally over SSL > curl >> Verify integrty with GPG (If available) > gpg --recv-keys 0xD2C4C74D8FAA96F5 > gpg --verify Inspect source code > less Run > chmod +x > ./

Insert the last command without the last argument (bash)
$/usr/sbin/ab2 -f TLS1 -S -n 1000 -c 100 -t 2 then $!:- is the same as $/usr/sbin/ab2 -f TLS1 -S -n 1000 -c 100 -t 2

Changes a User Password via command line without promt
Used to change a password via a winscp faux shell

Random Number Between 1 And X
If X is 5, it will about a number between 1 and 5 inclusive. This works in bash and zsh. If you want between 0 and 4, remove the +1.

Make a zip file with date/time created in the name of the file , zip all sub-directorys
zip -r /tmp/filename-`date +%Y%m%d_%H%M%S`.zip /directory/

rename files according to date created
The command renames all files in a certain directory. Renaming them to their date of creation using EXIF. If you're working with JPG that contains EXIF data (ie. from digital camera), then you can use following to get the creation date instead of stat. * Since not every file has exif data, we want to check that dst is valid before doing the rest of commands. * The output from exif has a space, which is a PITA for filenames. Use sed to replace with '-'. * Note that I use 'echo' before the mv to test out my scripts. When you're confident that it's doing the right thing, then you can remove the 'echo'... you don't want to end up like the guy that got all the files blown away. Credits:

list files recursively by size

Fire CMD every time FILE (or directory) is updated (on *BSD)

split a string (2)

Extract the contents of an RPM package to your current directory without installing them.
This assumes you have the 'rpm', 'rpm2cpio' and 'cpio' packages installed. This will extract the contents of the RPM package to your current directory. This is useful for working with the files that the package provides without installing the package on your system. Might be useful to create a temporary directory to hold the packages before running the extraction: $ mkdir /tmp/new-package/; cd /tmp/new-package

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