Commands using sh (68)


  • 17
    env PS4=' ${BASH_SOURCE}:${LINENO}(${FUNCNAME[0]}) ' sh -x /etc/profile
    oernii2 · 2009-10-07 14:44:59 4
  • I needed a way to search all files in a web directory that contained a certain string, and replace that string with another string. In the example, I am searching for "askapache" and replacing that string with "htaccess". I wanted this to happen as a cron job, and it was important that this happened as fast as possible while at the same time not hogging the CPU since the machine is a server. So this script uses the nice command to run the sh shell with the command, which makes the whole thing run with priority 19, meaning it won't hog CPU processing. And the -P5 option to the xargs command means it will run 5 separate grep and sed processes simultaneously, so this is much much faster than running a single grep or sed. You may want to do -P0 which is unlimited if you aren't worried about too many processes or if you don't have to deal with process killers in the bg. Also, the -m1 command to grep means stop grepping this file for matches after the first match, which also saves time. Show Sample Output


    10
    sh -c 'S=askapache R=htaccess; find . -mount -type f|xargs -P5 -iFF grep -l -m1 "$S" FF|xargs -P5 -iFF sed -i -e "s%${S}%${R}%g" FF'
    AskApache · 2009-10-02 05:03:10 0
  • This is useful if you'd like to see the output of a script while you edit it. Each time you save the file the command is executed. I thought for sure something like this already exists - and it probably does. I'm on an older system and tend to be missing some useful things. Examples: ontouchdo yourscript 'clear; yourscript somefiletoparse' Edit yourscript in a separate window and see new results each time you save. ontouchdo crufty.html 'clear; xmllint --noout crufty.html 2>&1 | head' Keep editing krufty.html until the xmllint window is empty. Note: Mac/bsd users should use stat -f%m. If you don't have stat, you can use perl -e '$f=shift; @s=stat($f); print "$s[9]\n";' $1


    10
    ontouchdo(){ while :; do a=$(stat -c%Y "$1"); [ "$b" != "$a" ] && b="$a" && sh -c "$2"; sleep 1; done }
    putnamhill · 2010-10-22 23:25:12 3

  • 7
    find . -type d -exec env d="$dest_root" sh -c ' exec mkdir -p -- "$d/$1"' '{}' '{}' \;
    hahnst · 2009-08-03 12:21:37 1
  • or echo '127.0.0.1 facebook.com' | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts Do not execute this command if you don't know what you are doing.


    7
    sudo sh -c "echo '127.0.0.1 www.facebook.com' >> /etc/hosts"
    devalnor · 2012-01-16 14:06:51 2
  • Bash process substitution which curls the website 'hashbang.sh' and executes the shell script embedded in the page. This is obviously not the most secure way to run something like this, and we will scold you if you try. The smarter way would be: Download locally over SSL > curl https://hashbang.sh >> hashbang.sh Verify integrty with GPG (If available) > gpg --recv-keys 0xD2C4C74D8FAA96F5 > gpg --verify hashbang.sh Inspect source code > less hashbang.sh Run > chmod +x hashbang.sh > ./hashbang.sh


    5
    sh <(curl hashbang.sh)
    lrvick · 2015-03-15 21:02:01 2
  • This is a commodity one-liner that uses ShellCheck to assure some quality on bash and sh scripts under a specific directory. It ignores the files in .git directory. Just substitute "./.git/*" with "./.svn/*" for older and booring centralized version control. Just substitute ShellCheck with "rm" if your scripts are crap and you want to get rid of them :)


    5
    find . -type f ! -path "./.git/*" -exec sh -c "head -n 1 {} | egrep -a 'bin/bash|bin/sh' >/dev/null" \; -print -exec shellcheck {} \;
    brx75x · 2017-03-16 08:43:56 3

  • 3
    find $MAILDIR/ -type f -printf '%T@ %p\n' | sort --reverse | sed -e '{ 1,100d; s/[0-9]*\.[0-9]* \(.*\)/\1/g }' | xargs -i sh -c "cat {}&&rm -f {}" | gzip -c >>ARCHIVE.gz
    maergil · 2009-08-11 20:12:15 0
  • this command works with one gziped file per table, and restore 4 tables in parallel. Show Sample Output


    3
    find -print0 | xargs -0 -n 1 -P 4 -I {} sh -c "zcat '{}' | mysql nix"
    skygreg · 2009-08-25 15:05:55 2
  • USAGE: $ sudor your command This command uses a dirty hack with history, so be sure you not turned it off. WARNING! This command behavior differ from other commands. It more like text macro, so you shouldn't use it in subshells, non-interactive sessions, other functions/aliases and so on. You shouldn't pipe into sudor (any string that prefixes sudor will be removed), but if you really want, use this commands: proceed_sudo () { sudor_command="`HISTTIMEFORMAT=\"\" history 1 | sed -r -e 's/^.*?sudor//' -e 's/\"/\\\"/g'`" ; pre_sudor_command="`history 1 | cut -d ' ' -f 5- | sed -r -e 's/sudor.*$//' -e 's/\"/\\\"/g'`"; if [ -n "${pre_sudor_command/ */}" ] ; then eval "${pre_sudor_command%| *}" | sudo sh -c "$sudor_command"; else sudo sh -c "$sudor_command" ;fi ;}; alias sudor="proceed_sudo # "


    3
    proceed_sudo () { sudor_command="`HISTTIMEFORMAT=\"\" history 1 | sed -r -e 's/^.*?sudor//' -e 's/\"/\\\"/g'`" ; sudo sh -c "$sudor_command"; }; alias sudor="proceed_sudo # "
    mechmind · 2010-06-29 14:56:29 0
  • Do the same as pssh, just in shell syntax. Put your hosts in hostlist, one per line. Command outputs are gathered in output and error directories.


    3
    xargs -n1 -P100 -I{} sh -c 'ssh {} uptime >output/{} 2>error/{}' <hostlist
    dooblem · 2010-08-20 11:03:11 0
  • This command converts filenames with embedded spaces in the current directory replacing spaces with the underscore ("_") character. Show Sample Output


    2
    ls -1 | grep " " | awk '{printf("mv \"%s\" ",$0); gsub(/ /,"_",$0); printf("%s\n",$0)}' | sh # rename filenames: spaces to "_"
    mpb · 2009-03-15 18:42:43 13
  • Manages everything through one sed script instead of pipes of greps and awks. Quoting of shell variables is generally easier within a sed script.


    2
    svn log fileName | sed -ne "/^r\([0-9][0-9]*\).*/{;s//\1/;s/.*/svn cat fileName@& > fileName.r&/p;}" | sh -s
    arcege · 2009-09-04 17:23:45 0
  • For each directory from the current one, list the counts of files in each of these directories. Change the -maxdepth to drill down further through directories. Show Sample Output


    2
    find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -exec sh -c "printf '{} ' ; find '{}' -type f -ls | wc -l" \;
    HerbCSO · 2013-07-29 19:46:35 0
  • url can be like any one of followings: url="MejbOFk7H6c" url="http://youtu.be/MejbOFk7H6c" url="https://youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=MejbOFk7H6c#t" url="//www.youtube.com/v/MejbOFk7H6c?hl=ru_RU&version=3&rel=0" url="http://www.youtube.com/embed/MejbOFk7H6c?feature=player_embedded" If url mismatching, whole url will be returned. Show Sample Output


    2
    sh -c 'url="http://youtu.be/MejbOFk7H6c"; vid="`for i in ".*youtu\.be/\([^\/&?#]\+\)" ".*youtu.\+v[=/]\([^\/&?#]\+\)" ".*youtu.\+embed/\([^\/&?#]\+\)"; do expr "${url}" : "${i}"; done`"; if [ -n "${vid}" ]; then echo ${vid}; else echo "${url}"; fi'
    qwertyroot · 2013-09-04 19:33:09 0
  • This has been my "sysupgrade" alias since ca. 2006, first used on Debian Sid, then Sabayon, and it still does its duty on Mint nowadays without breaking stuff.


    2
    sudo sh -c "aptitude update; aptitude -DrVWZ full-upgrade; aptitude autoclean; exit"
    lordtoran · 2015-09-28 23:48:05 0
  • Get information of volume labels of bitlocker volumes, even if they are encrypted and locked (no access to filesystem, no password provided). Note that the volume labels can have spaces, but only if you name then before encryption. Renaming a bitlocker partition after being encrypted does not have the same effect as doing it before. Show Sample Output


    2
    sudo echo "BitLocker Volume labels:" && sudo dislocker-find | xargs -I{} sh -c 'echo -n "{} ->+ " ; sudo dislocker-metadata -V {} | grep string' | sed 's/+.*string://' | sed "s/'[^ ]* /\"/g" | sed 's/\ [^ ]*$/"/'
    bugmenot · 2018-04-29 01:00:11 0
  • If the remote doesn't export its desktop (eg fluxbox, blackbox etc) then you need to run a x11vnc server there and a vncviewer at the local end. This command does the lot for you - it assumes that you can 'ssh' to the box without a password and that x11vnc is installed at the remote end.


    1
    rdp() { ssh $1 sh -c 'PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/bin; x11vnc -q -rfbauth ~/.vnc/passwd -display :0' & sleep 4; vncviewer $1:0 & }
    bhepple · 2009-11-25 07:21:02 0
  • I used this command to recursively gather all mp3 files that were previously imported into their own directories (sorted by band name) in Songbird.


    1
    find . -name '*.mp3' -type f -exec sh -c 'exec cp -f "$@" /home/user/dir' find-copy {} +
    mariusz · 2009-12-08 19:31:16 1
  • Grabs the cmdline used to execute the process, and the environment that the process is being run under. This is much different than the 'env' command, which only lists the environment for the shell. This is very useful (to me at least) to debug various processes on my server. For example, this lets me see the environment that my apache, mysqld, bind, and other server processes have. Here's a function I use: aa_ps_all () { ( cd /proc && command ps -A -opid= | xargs -I'{}' sh -c 'test $PPID -ne {}&&test -r {}/cmdline&&echo -e "\n[{}]"&&tr -s "\000" " "<{}/cmdline&&echo&&tr -s "\000\033" "\nE"<{}/environ|sort&&cat {}/limits' ); } From my .bash_profile at http://www.askapache.com/linux-unix/bash_profile-functions-advanced-shell.html Show Sample Output


    1
    cd /proc&&ps a -opid=|xargs -I+ sh -c '[[ $PPID -ne + ]]&&echo -e "\n[+]"&&tr -s "\000" " "<+/cmdline&&echo&&tr -s "\000\033" "\nE"<+/environ|sort'
    AskApache · 2010-10-22 02:34:33 3

  • 1
    svn status | grep '^?' | sed -e 's/^? */svn add "/g' -e 's/$/"/g'|sh ; svn status | grep '^!' | sed -e 's/^! */svn delete "/g' -e 's/$/"/g'|sh
    ironmarc · 2010-11-18 09:57:45 0

  • 1
    git branch -r | awk -F'/' '{print "git fetch "$1,$2}' | xargs -I {} sh -c {}
    cakyus · 2014-10-25 07:36:50 2
  • Linux offers an interesting option to restrict the use of dmesg. It is available via /proc/sys/kernel/dmesg_restrict. You can check the status with: cat /proc/sys/kernel/dmesg_restrict Alternatively you can use sysctl: sudo sysctl -w kernel.dmesg_restrict=1 To make your change persistent across reboot, edit a fille in /etc/sysctl.d/.


    1
    sudo sh -c 'echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/dmesg_restrict'
    Blacksimon · 2015-03-13 20:54:45 0
  • Benchmark a SQL query against MySQL Server. The example runs the query 10 times, and you get the average runtime in the output. To ensure that the query does not get cached, use `RESET QUERY CACHE;` on top in the query file. Show Sample Output


    1
    perf stat -r 10 sh -c "mysql > /dev/null < query.sql"
    particleflux · 2018-05-03 12:20:03 0

  • 1
    find /path -name '*.pdf' -exec sh -c 'pdftotext "{}" - | grep --with-filename --label="{}" --color "your pattern"' \;
    HaoZeke · 2018-08-13 07:31:54 0
  •  1 2 3 > 

What's this?

commandlinefu.com is the place to record those command-line gems that you return to again and again. That way others can gain from your CLI wisdom and you from theirs too. All commands can be commented on, discussed and voted up or down.

Share Your Commands


Check These Out

SSH connection through host in the middle
Unreachable_host is unavailable from local network, but it's available from reachable_host's network. This command creates a connection to unreachable_host through "hidden" connection to reachable_host.

Replace Solaris vmstat numbers with human readable format
% cat ph-vmstat.awk # Return human readable numbers function hrnum(a) { b = a ; if (a > 1000000) { b = sprintf("%2.2fM", a/1000000) ; } else if (a > 1000) { b = sprintf("%2.2fK", a/1000) ; } return(b) ; } # Return human readable storage function hrstorage(a) { b = a ; if (a > 1024000) { b = sprintf("%2.2fG", a/1024/1024) ; } else if (a > 1024) { b = sprintf("%2.2fM", a/1024) ; } return(b) ; } OFS=" " ; $1 !~ /[0-9].*/ {print} $1 ~ /[0-9].*/ { $4 = hrstorage($4) ; $5 = hrstorage($5) ; $9 = hrnum($9) ; $10 = hrnum($10) ; $17 = hrnum($17) ; $18 = hrnum($18) ; $19 = hrnum($19) ; print ; }

ptree equivalent in HP-UX
By setting the UNIX95 variable in HP-UX the XPG4 mode is activated, you get new options for ps and other commands, for me the best way to use this is to create an alias named ptree in root profile: alias ptree='UNIX95=1 ps -eH'

Convert a MOV captured from a digital camera to a smaller AVI
Convert those .mov files that your digital camera makes to .avi Adjust the bitrate (-b) to get the appropriate file size. A larger bitrate produces a larger (higher quality) .avi file and smaller bitrate produces a smaller (lower quality) .avi file. Requires ffmpeg (see man page for details) (tested with canon camera MOV files) Other examples: $ffmpeg -i input.mov -sameq -vcodec msmpeg4v2 -acodec pcm_u8 output.avi $ffmpeg -i input.mov -b 1024k -vcodec msmpeg4v2 -acodec pcm_u8 output.avi

Preserve colors when piping tree to less

ttyS0 - terminal on serial connection
I actually planned to do this for quite a long time, but since I haven't had any suitable client hardware, I procrastinated this. Now, the old laptop I've got from my dad, features an RS-232 port. So, now that I had technically a client, that I could test my RS-232 connection with, I ordered a null modem cable. There is no RS-232 outlet on my desktop computer directly on the mainboard, but theres a connector on the mainbord, where a RS-232 outlet can be attached to. The outlet will then cover up a PCI slot. # Activating RS-232 Ok, once all cables were in place, I tried to access both RS-232 ports by reading from them directly. They're usually ttyS0 or ttyS1, depending what COM-Port it is. From the file /proc/tty/driver/serial, information about the serial setup can be obtained. A setserial -q /dev/ttyS0 might be usefull as well. Usually, the UART Type is 16550A, on a standard PC. Mine wasn't working though. At leas not right from the start, when I tried to read the interface with cat /dev/ttyS0 I got the following error: # cat /dev/ttyS0 cat: /dev/ttyS0: Input/output error Obviously, the driver couldn't activate the hardware. Reason was, it was deactivated in BIOS. After activating RS-232 there, it worked well. As a last action, I added myself to the uucp group, so I have user permission to the serial lines. It is not necessary for the terminal setup, but a good idea to do so, just for future projects, maybe... # Setting up a terminal Once the Serial line is configured and working properly, it's time to let a terminal run on that port. This is what I added to my /etc/inittab : s0:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 38400 ttyS0 I added it quite on the top of that file, right below the 'si' statement, mingetty cannot be used for serial connections, it cannot be run in a console, too. I tried it for testing purposes, but the cosole - along with your login program - will log you out, as soon as you log in over your serial line. '-L' means this is a local line, with no carrier signal. 38400 is the standard speed of a Linux console, it might be a bit high, I was told, but it works well. I tested that with some higher values as well (115200) and it worked too, I guess it tepends on things like cable length, etc. Last parameter, is the serial tty to listen on. The terminal type can be specified as an additional parameter at the end of the parameter list, vt102, for instance. This is sometimes required, depending on the client. After finishing editing /etc/inittab, an init q will make the system re-read /etc/inittab and apply changes. The agetty should now be listening on ttyS0. #Setting up a client It's time to establish a connection and test the serial line. I use a laptop, that has an RS-232 port, so some preliminary setup is required. I tried minicom as terminal initially, but it turned out, not to be the best client. It initializes the modem, this lasts quite long, and it doesn't convey ANSI colors. So the better option is cu, it's part of the UUCP-Package. Oh, and the serial port of that computer, has to be accessible as well, of course. Once everything was set up, I established the connection: $ cu -l ttyS0 -38400 --nostop Pretty self explanatory, I think. The --nostop option disables XON/XOFF handling. # root access over ttyS0 In order to become root over the serial terminal, the tty needs to be added to /etc/securetty I appended ttyS0 to the end of the file. It is now possible, to gain root access over the serial terminal. The agetty process needs to be restarted to apply changes. # Accessing GRUB over ttyS0 To make bootloader access possible over ttyS0, some changes to /boot/grub/menu.lst need to be done. (GRUB is the bootloader I use, I suppose LiLo has similar capabilities.) Those are the lines, I appended to the top of my menu.lst : serial --unit=0 --speed=38400 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1 terminal --timeout=3 serial console The serial command initiates the serial terminal option, --unit=0 defines our first serial connector, I my case, it's the only one I have on my machine. I used the standard Linux-Console speed, as well as the "8N1" connection strategy. terminal defines the terminal priorities, first terminal (serial) is the standard one, the last one is the secondary terminal (console). --timeout=3 enables a delay on both consoles, with a prompt for a keystroke. Depending on which terminal, the key is pressed, this terminal, will be used. If no key is pressed after the timeout, the standard console (in my case serial) will be used. # Relaying Kernel output on boot The Kernel accepts multiple console options, of which the last one, is the standard console, and the one that will be used in Single User mode. These are my Kernel options: title Fedora Core (2.6.20-1.2316.fc5) root (hd0,0) kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.20-1.2316.fc5 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet vga=795 console=tty0 console=ttyS0,38400 initrd /initrd-2.6.20-1.2316.fc5.img console=tty0 is the standard console, located on the machine, i.e. monitor and keyboard.

Install pip with Proxy
Installs pip packages defining a proxy

Watch movies in your terminal
requires mplayer

Which processes are listening on a specific port (e.g. port 80)
swap out "80" for your port of interest. Can use port number or named ports e.g. "http"

apt-get upgrade with bandwidth limit
in Debian-based systems apt-get could be limited to the specified bandwidth in kilobytes using the apt configuration options(man 5 apt.conf, man apt-get). I'd quote man 5 apt.conf: "The used bandwidth can be limited with Acquire::http::Dl-Limit which accepts integer values in kilobyte. The default value is 0 which deactivates the limit and tries uses as much as possible of the bandwidth..." "HTTPS URIs. Cache-control, Timeout, AllowRedirect, Dl-Limit and proxy options are the same as for http..."


Stay in the loop…

Follow the Tweets.

Every new command is wrapped in a tweet and posted to Twitter. Following the stream is a great way of staying abreast of the latest commands. For the more discerning, there are Twitter accounts for commands that get a minimum of 3 and 10 votes - that way only the great commands get tweeted.

» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu
» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu3
» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu10

Subscribe to the feeds.

Use your favourite RSS aggregator to stay in touch with the latest commands. There are feeds mirroring the 3 Twitter streams as well as for virtually every other subset (users, tags, functions,…):

Subscribe to the feed for: