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Simply copies your public key to the remote system. For the first time, this will require a password for the user@remote account. From then on, ssh will ask for your private key keyphrase occasionally but you won't need to use the password. Very handy when you're moving files for testing etc.
stty sane resets the tty to basic usable function. The ^J is a newline -- sometimes CR/LF interpretation is broken so use the ^J explicitly.
This is more or less the same as 'reset', but with two advantages: the initial LF character makes sure you're starting a new line to the tty driver, the final one is more reliably a line-end as CR is often unset; and second, 'stty sane' is reliable on older UNIX systems, especially Berkeley-based ones.
Simply translates whitespace to newlines. Could be enhanced to compress out extra newlines, but that might be better handled in the next tool down the pipe, with eg uniq(1).