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You need bonnie++ package for this. More detail than a simple hdparm -t /dev/sda would give you.
the -d is the directory where it performs writes/reads for example I use /tmp/scratch with 777 permissions
Bonnie++ benchmarks three things: data read and write speed, number of seeks that can be performed per second, and number of file metadata operations that can be performed per second.
This is useful for displaying a portion of a FILE that contains an error at line NUMBER
This is a bit to bit copy so if you have a 500GB hard disk it will take a long time even if have Gigabit Ethernet