Commands using mount (66)

  • Particularly useful if you're mounting different drives, using the following command will allow you to see all the filesystems currently mounted on your computer and their respective specs with the added benefit of nice formatting. Show Sample Output


    327
    mount | column -t
    thechile · 2009-03-20 14:18:56 45
  • Makes a partition in ram which is useful if you need a temporary working space as read/write access is fast. Be aware that anything saved in this partition will be gone after your computer is turned off.


    199
    mount -t tmpfs tmpfs /mnt -o size=1024m
    ajrobinson · 2009-02-06 00:33:08 19
  • "-o loop" lets you use a file as a block device


    45
    mount /path/to/file.iso /mnt/cdrom -oloop
    nerd65536 · 2009-02-05 17:28:06 15
  • In my example, the mount point is /media/mpdr1 and the FS is /dev/sdd1 /mountpoint-path = /media/mpdr1 filesystem=/dev/sdd1 Why this command ? Well, in fact, with some external devices I used to face some issues : during data transfer from the device to the internal drive, some errors occurred and the device was unmounted and remounted again in a different folder. In such situations, the command mountpoint gave a positive result even if the FS wasn't properly mounted, that's why I added the df part. And if the device is not properly mounted, the command tries to unmount, to create the folder (if it exists already it will also work) and finally mount the FS on the given mount point. Show Sample Output


    20
    (mountpoint -q "/media/mpdr1" && df /media/mpdr1/* > /dev/null 2>&1) || ((sudo umount "/media/mpdr1" > /dev/null 2>&1 || true) && (sudo mkdir "/media/mpdr1" > /dev/null 2>&1 || true) && sudo mount "/dev/sdd1" "/media/mpdr1")
    tweet78 · 2014-04-12 11:23:21 26

  • 18
    mount -t ntfs-3g -o ro,loop,uid=user,gid=group,umask=0007,fmask=0117,offset=0x$(hd -n 1000000 image.vdi | grep "eb 52 90 4e 54 46 53" | cut -c 1-8) image.vdi /mnt/vdi-ntfs
    Cowboy · 2009-08-23 17:25:07 9
  • This does not require you to know the partition offset, kpartx will find all partitions in the image and create loopback devices for them automatically. This works for all types of images (dd of hard drives, img, etc) not just vmkd. You can also activate LVM volumes in the image by running vgchange -a y and then you can mount the LV inside the image. To unmount the image, umount the partition/LV, deactivate the VG for the image vgchange -a n <volume_group> then run kpartx -dv <image-flad.vmdk> to remove the partition mappings. Show Sample Output


    14
    kpartx -av <image-flat.vmdk>; mount -o /dev/mapper/loop0p1 /mnt/vmdk
    rldleblanc · 2014-09-25 23:05:09 11
  • Suppose you made a backup of your hard disk with dd: dd if=/dev/sda of=/mnt/disk/backup.img This command enables you to mount a partition from inside this image, so you can access your files directly. Substitute PARTITION=1 with the number of the partition you want to mount (returned from sfdisk -d yourfile.img). Show Sample Output


    8
    INFILE=/path/to/your/backup.img; MOUNTPT=/mnt/foo; PARTITION=1; mount "$INFILE" "$MOUNTPT" -o loop,offset=$[ `/sbin/sfdisk -d "$INFILE" | grep "start=" | head -n $PARTITION | tail -n1 | sed 's/.*start=[ ]*//' | sed 's/,.*//'` * 512 ]
    Alanceil · 2009-03-06 21:29:13 6
  • Based on the execute with timeout command in this site. A more complex script: #!/bin/sh # This script will check the avaliability of a list of NFS mount point, # forcing a remount of those that do not respond in 5 seconds. # # It basically does this: # NFSPATH=/mountpoint TIMEOUT=5; perl -e "alarm $TIMEOUT; exec @ARGV" "test -d $NFSPATH" || (umount -fl $NFSPATH; mount $NFSPATH) # TIMEOUT=5 SCRIPT_NAME=$(basename $0) for i in $@; do echo "Checking $i..." if ! perl -e "alarm $TIMEOUT; exec @ARGV" "test -d $i" > /dev/null 2>&1; then echo "$SCRIPT_NAME: $i is failing with retcode $?."1>&2 echo "$SCRIPT_NAME: Submmiting umount -fl $i" 1>&2 umount -fl $i; echo "$SCRIPT_NAME: Submmiting mount $i" 1>&2 mount $i; fi done


    8
    NFSPATH=/mountpoint TIMEOUT=5; perl -e "alarm $TIMEOUT; exec @ARGV" "test -d $NFSPATH" || (umount -fl $NFSPATH; mount $NFSPATH)
    keymon · 2010-06-04 07:59:00 4
  • Tested with NTFS and found on this site: http://forensicir.blogspot.com/2008/01/virtualbox-and-forensics-tools.html The first 32256 bytes is the MBR


    7
    vditool COPYDD my.vdi my.dd ; sudo mount -t ntfs -o ro,noatime,noexex,loop,offset=32256 my.dd ./my_dir
    Cowboy · 2009-08-14 21:33:43 5

  • 7
    sudo mount -t cifs -o user,username="samba username" //$ip_or_host/$sharename /mnt
    ludogomez · 2009-11-23 15:26:23 5
  • mounts an ISO file to a directory on the target file system


    6
    mount -o loop -t iso9660 my.iso /mnt/something
    kanzure · 2009-12-30 18:49:30 3
  • This is just a proof of concept: A FILE WHICH CAN AUTOMOUNT ITSELF through a SIMPLY ENCODED script. It takes advantage of the OFFSET option of mount, and uses it as a password (see that 9191? just change it to something similar, around 9k). It works fine, mounts, gets modified, updated, and can be moved by just copying it. USAGE: SEE SAMPLE OUTPUT The file is composed of three parts: a) The legible script (about 242 bytes) b) A random text fill to reach the OFFSET size (equals PASSWORD minus 242) c) The actual filesystem Logically, (a)+(b) = PASSWORD, that means OFFSET, and mount uses that option. PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS NOT AN ENCRYPTED FILESYSTEM. To improve it, it can be mounted with a better encryption script and used with encfs or cryptfs. The idea was just to test the concept... with one line :) It applies the original idea of http://www.commandlinefu.com/commands/view/7382/command-for-john-cons for encrypting the file. The embedded bash script can be grown, of course, and the offset recalculation goes fine. I have my own version with bash --init-file to startup a bashrc with a well-defined environment, aliases, variables. Show Sample Output


    6
    dd if=/dev/zero of=T bs=1024 count=10240;mkfs.ext3 -q T;E=$(echo 'read O;mount -o loop,offset=$O F /mnt;'|base64|tr -d '\n');echo "E=\$(echo $E|base64 -d);eval \$E;exit;">F;cat <(dd if=/dev/zero bs=$(echo 9191-$(stat -c%s F)|bc) count=1) <(cat T;rm T)>>F
    rodolfoap · 2013-01-31 01:38:30 9
  • Run this in / in a chroot to get your own proc there.


    5
    mount -t proc{,,}
    alexfoo · 2009-02-26 12:53:58 9
  • Saved my day, when my harddrive got stuck in read-only mode.


    5
    sudo mount -o remount,rw /
    blindgaenger · 2009-03-01 13:36:05 7
  • Packages: gmailfs fuse-utils libfuse2 gvfs-fuse Config files: /etc/gmailfs/gmailfs.conf; ~/.gmailfs.conf (make a copy from the another one) Unmount: fusermount -u /mount/path/ /etc/fstab (Optional): none /mount/path/ gmailfs noauto,user[,username=USERNAME,password=PASSWORD,fsname=VOLUME] 0 0 NOTES: - The options between [] are optional since they already setuped on the config files. - The '-p' flag shows a prompt for the password entry. - It's necessary to add the user to the 'fuse' group. You can do that with: sudo chgrp fuse /dev/fuse and sudo usermod -a -G fuse USER - The volume name is not needed but highly recommended to avoid file corruption. Also choose a non-trivial name. - Google doesn't approve the use of Gmail account other than e-mail purposes. So, I recommend the creation of a new account for this.


    5
    mount.gmailfs none /mount/path/ [-o username=USERNAME[,password=PASSWORD][,fsname=VOLUME]] [-p]
    o6291408 · 2009-03-28 13:00:47 4
  • Assuming we have a disk image, ie. created by dd if=/dev/sda of=image.dd we can check the image's partition layout with fdisk -ul image.dd then, we substitute "x" with starting sector of the partition we want to mount. This example assumes that the disk uses 512 B sectors


    5
    mount -o loop,offset=$((512*x)) /path/to/dd/image /mount/path
    rocku · 2009-11-25 15:49:30 6

  • 5
    sudo dd if=/dev/sdc bs=4096 | pv -s `sudo mount /dev/sdc /media/sdc && du -sb /media/sdc/ |awk '{print $1}' && sudo umount /media/sdc`| sudo dd bs=4096 of=~/USB_BLACK_BACKUP.IMG
    juanmi · 2013-02-06 09:29:10 5
  • Add the functions to the .bashrc to make it work Example: First go to the iso file directory and type: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- user@box:~$ miso file.iso ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- It will put you into a temporary mounting point directory (ISO_CD) and will show the files You can umount the iso file whatever the directory you are ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- user@box:~/ISO_CD$ uiso ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- It wil umount the iso file and remove the temporary directory in your home


    4
    function miso () { mkdir ~/ISO_CD && sudo mount -o loop "$@" ~/ISO_CD && cd ~/ISO_CD && ls; } function uiso () { cd ~ && sudo umount ~/ISO_CD && rm -r ~/ISO_CD; }
    vududevil · 2009-02-25 03:41:35 4
  • the middle command between the ; and ; is the vi commands that insert that line into the last line of the file, the esc with the carets is literally hitting the escape key, you have to have the smbfs package installed to do it, I use it to access my iTunes music on my mac from my linux PC's with amarok so I can play the music anywhere in the house. among other things, it allows you to access the files on that share from your computer anytime you're on that network.


    4
    sudo vi /etc/fstab; Go//smb-share/gino /mnt/place smbfs defaults,username=gino,password=pass 0 0<esc>:wq; mount //smb-share/gino
    GinoMan2440 · 2009-04-02 16:04:35 7
  • Like symlinked directories, you can mount a directory at a different location. For example mounting a directory from one location in to the http root without having to make your program follow symlinks or change permissions when reading.


    4
    mount --bind /old/directory/path /new/directory/path
    dryicerx · 2009-04-19 01:44:59 5
  • if you use disk-based swap then it can defeat the purpose of this function.


    4
    ram() { for i in /tmp /altroot;do mount -t tmpfs tmpfs $i;done&& for i in /var /root /etc $HOME; do find -d $i |cpio -pdmv /tmp&& mount -t tmpfs tmpfs $i&& mv -v /tmp$i/* $i&& rm -vrf /tmp$i ; done ;} usage: (in rc sequence) ram
    argv · 2010-08-31 08:25:55 2

  • 4
    losetup /dev/loop0 harddrive.img; kpartx -a -v /dev/loop0; mount /dev/mapper/loop0p1 /mountpoint/
    oernii3 · 2010-10-30 11:52:11 6
  • Will append lines to the hosts file to do some basic ad blocking.


    4
    sudo mount -o remount,rw / && sudo cp /etc/hosts /etc/hosts.old && wget http://winhelp2002.mvps.org/hosts.txt && cp /etc/hosts ~/ && cat hosts.txt >> hosts && sudo cp hosts /etc/hosts
    bugmenot · 2016-06-06 15:01:19 7
  • The command is useful when, e.g., booting an existing system with a rescue or installation CD where you need to chroot into the hard-disk and be able to do stuff which accesses kernel info (e.g. when installing Ubuntu desktop with LVM2 you need to mount and chroot the hard disk from a shell window in order to install packages and run initramfs inside chroot). The command assumes that /mnt/xxx is where the chroot'ed environment's root file system on the hard disk is mounted.


    3
    for i in sys dev proc; do sudo mount --bind /$i /mnt/xxx/$i; done
    amosshapira · 2009-04-20 16:52:14 7
  • First look into /etc/modules if you have unionfs (or squashfs) support. If not, add the modules. UnionFS combines two filesystems. If there is a need to write a file, /tmp/unioncache will be used to write files (first create that directory). Reads will be done where the file is found first. http://tldp.org/HOWTO/SquashFS-HOWTO/creatingandusing.html


    3
    mount -t unionfs -o dirs=/tmp/unioncache=rw:/mnt/readonly=ro unionfs /mnt/unionfs
    Cowboy · 2009-08-23 14:16:13 2
  •  1 2 3 > 

What's this?

commandlinefu.com is the place to record those command-line gems that you return to again and again. That way others can gain from your CLI wisdom and you from theirs too. All commands can be commented on, discussed and voted up or down.

Share Your Commands


Check These Out

Another Matrix Style Implementation
A bit different from some of the other submissions. Has bold and uses all c printable characters. Change the bs=value to speed up and increase the sizes of the bold and non-bold strings.

Give all those pictures the same name format, trailing zeros please for the right order, offset to merge different collections of pictures
When you have different digital cameras, different people, friends and you want to merge all those pictures together, then you get files with same names or files with 3 and 4 digit numbers etc. The result is a mess if you copy it together into one directory. But if you can add an offset to the picture number and set the number of leading zeros in the file name's number then you can manage. OFFS != 0 and LZ the same as the files currently have is not supported. Or left as an exercise, hoho ;) I love NF="${NF/#+(0)/}",it looks like a magic bash spell.

Tar files matching a certain wildcard
This is a shortcut to tar up all files matching a wildcard. Tar doesn't have the --include (apparently).

Convert CSV to JSON
Replace 'csv_file.csv' with your filename.

Recursively unrar into dir containing archive
From the cwd, recursively find all rar files, extracting each rar into the directory where it was found, rather than cwd. A nice time saver if you've used wget or similar to mirror something, where each sub dir contains an rar archive. Its likely this can be tuned to work with multi-part archives where all parts use ambiguous .rar extensions but I didn't test this. Perhaps unrar would handle this gracefully anyway?

Limit memory usage per script/program
When I'm testing some scripts or programs, they end up using more memory than anticipated. In that case, computer nearly halts due to swap space usage, and sometimes I have to press Magic SysRq+REISUB to reboot. So, I was looking for a way to limit memory usage per script and found out that ulimit can limit memory. If you run it this way: $ $ ulimit -v 1000000 . $ $ scriptname Then the new memory limit will be valid for that shell. I think changing the limit within a subshell is much more flexible and it won't interfere with your current shell ulimit settings. note: -v 1000000 corresponds to approximately 1GB of RAM

copy timestamps of files from one location to another - useful when file contents are already synced but timestamps are wrong.
Sometimes when copying files from one place to another, the timestamps get lost. Maybe you forgot to add a flag to preserve timestamps in your copy command. You're sure the files are exactly the same in both locations, but the timestamps of the files in the new home are wrong and you need them to match the source. Using this command, you will get a shell script (/tmp/retime.sh) than you can move to the new location and just execute - it will change the timestamps on all the files and directories to their previous values. Make sure you're in the right directory when you launch it, otherwise all the touch commands will create new zero-length files with those names. Since find's output includes "." it will also change the timestamp of the current directory. Ideally rsync would be the way to handle this - since it only sends changes by default, there would be relatively little network traffic resulting. But rsync has to read the entire file contents on both sides to be sure no bytes have changed, potentially causing a huge amount of local disk I/O on each side. This could be a problem if your files are large. My approach avoids all the comparison I/O. I've seen comments that rsync with the "--size-only" and "--times" options should do this also, but it didn't seem to do what I wanted in my test. With my approach you can review/edit the output commands before running them, so you can tell exactly what will happen. The "tee" command both displays the output on the screen for your review, AND saves it to the file /tmp/retime.sh. Credit: got this idea from Stone's answer at http://serverfault.com/questions/344731/rsync-copying-over-timestamps-only?rq=1, and combined it into one line.

Convert YAML to JSON
Converts YAML file to JSON. Note that you'll need to install PyYAML. Also some YAML data types (like dates) are not supported by JSON).

Which processes are listening on a specific port (e.g. port 80)
swap out "80" for your port of interest. Can use port number or named ports e.g. "http"

Download all manuals RedHat 7 (CentOS/Fedora) with one command in Linux


Stay in the loop…

Follow the Tweets.

Every new command is wrapped in a tweet and posted to Twitter. Following the stream is a great way of staying abreast of the latest commands. For the more discerning, there are Twitter accounts for commands that get a minimum of 3 and 10 votes - that way only the great commands get tweeted.

» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu
» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu3
» http://twitter.com/commandlinefu10

Subscribe to the feeds.

Use your favourite RSS aggregator to stay in touch with the latest commands. There are feeds mirroring the 3 Twitter streams as well as for virtually every other subset (users, tags, functions,…):

Subscribe to the feed for: